"In the state of nature, Profit is the measure of Right."
Thomas Hobbes, 17th century English philosopher

Barter is the first Commerce Commerce Research available at the Library. It unlocks researching the second Commerce technology, Coinage.

Researching Barter unlocks the Market and the Dock. It also increases the Commerce Limit for all resources by +30 (excluding Knowledge, which is not limited), from 70 to 100.

Barter increases the Caravan Limit by +1, allowing you to create another trading route.


Ostensibly this is one of the most important technologies you may ever research, for Barter itself not only helps to improve your economy further (which is vital for many factions, especially those with national bonuses in resource production) but it also has a military purpose as well — Barter is required to unlock the Dock. In a map with extensive water, naval units are key and so Barter is also required to gain access to the Fire Raft and the Trireme which are the sine qua non units of any naval game. Thus on water maps, it might be expedient to prioritize Barter over another tech, such as City State or The Art of War once Written Word is finished. On earlier starts such as Ancient Age, Barter may be vital because it opens up the Market, allowing for trade and eventually the accumulation of Wealth required in order to access the first level of Scientific research, eventually pushing forward the expansion of your nation's technological base.


The default cost is 60 Food Food and 60 Timber Timber, the default research time is 13.3 seconds (200 frames).

Quick reference cardEdit

Source: Cost Requirements Leads to
  • 60Food; 60Timber
  • Time to complete: Short
  • Ancient age Age
  • Com2 Commerce
  • Mrkt
  • Dck


A barter scene in acient age

A typical scene of barter.

Barter is an exchange for other goods or services without using money or other medium, which is according to a regular rate of exchange or bargains. Before humans used money in the Ancient Age, they had understood barter. Barter is different from business, because it uses no medium such as money. As a consequence. it is probably not an exchange of equal values, belongs to the system of hierarchy, and has obvious feature of "economy".

As seen, barter had problems. It lacked the flexibility of money as people were usually limited in choices.

Commerce Research
Preceded by:
{{{current}}} Succeeded by:

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